The researchers found the majority of females identified as heterosexual and submissive, a substantial minority were versatile—able to switch between dominant and submissive roles—and a smaller minority identified with the dominant role exclusively.
The sadist, in contrast, derives pleasure from the "Law": The sadist attempts to destroy the ego in an effort to unify the id and super-ego , in effect gratifying the most base desires the sadist can express while ignoring or completely suppressing the will of the ego, or of the conscience.
Thus, Deleuze attempts to argue that masochism and sadism arise from such different impulses that the combination of the two terms is meaningless and misleading. A masochist's perception of their own self-subjugating sadistic desires and capacities are treated by Deleuze as reactions to prior experience of sadistic objectification.
The epilogue of Venus In Furs shows the character of Severin has become embittered by his experiment in the alleged control of masochism, and advocates instead the domination of women. Before Deleuze, however, Sartre had presented his own theory of sadism and masochism, at which Deleuze's deconstructive argument, which took away the symmetry of the two roles, was probably directed.
Because the pleasure or power in looking at the victim figures prominently in sadism and masochism, Sartre was able to link these phenomena to his famous philosophy of the "Look of the Other". Sartre argued that masochism is an attempt by the "For-itself" consciousness to reduce itself to nothing, becoming an object that is drowned out by the "abyss of the Other's subjectivity". Conversely, Sartre held sadism to be the effort to annihilate the subjectivity of the victim.
That means that the sadist is exhilarated by the emotional distress of the victim because they seek a subjectivity that views the victim as both subject and object. This argument may appear stronger if it is understood that this "look of the other" theory is either only an aspect of the faculties of desire, or somehow its primary faculty.
This does not account for the turn that Deleuze took for his own theory of these matters, but the premise of "desire as 'look'" is associated with theoretical distinctions always detracted by Deleuze, in what he regarded as its essential error to recognize "desire as lack"—which he identified in the philosophical temperament of Plato, Socrates, and Lacan.
For Deleuze, insofar as desire is a lack it is reducible to the "look". Finally, after Deleuze, René Girard included his account of sado-masochism in Things Hidden Since the Foundation of The World , originally Des choses cachées depuis la fondation du monde , , making the chapter on masochism a coherent part of his theory of mimetic desire. In this view of sado-masochism, the violence of the practices are an expression of a peripheral rivalry that has developed around the actual love-object.
There is clearly a similarity to Deleuze, since both in the violence surrounding the memory of mimetic crisis and its avoidance, and in the resistance to affection that is focused on by Deleuze, there is an understanding of the value of the love object in terms of the processes of its valuation, acquisition and the test it imposes on the suitor.
Nichols compiled some common clinical issues: Countertransference is a common problem in clinical settings. Therapists may feel intense disgust and aversive reactions. Feelings of countertransference can interfere with therapy. Another common problem is when clients conceal their sexual preferences from their therapists. This can compromise any therapy. To avoid non-disclosure, therapists are encouraged to communicate their openness in indirect ways with literatures and artworks in the waiting room.
Therapists can also deliberately bring up BDSM topics during the course of therapy. A special subgroup that needs counselling is the "newbie". Individuals just coming out might have internalized shame, fear, and self-hatred about their sexual preferences.
Therapists need to provide acceptance, care, and model positive attitude; providing reassurance, psychoeducation , and bibliotherapy for these clients is crucial. The average age when BDSM individuals realize their sexual preference is around 26 years. However, they may have married or had children by this point. Therefore, therapists need to facilitate couple's counselling and disclosure. It is important for therapists to consider fairness to partner and family of clients.
In situations when boundaries between roles in the bedroom and roles in the rest of the relationship blurs, a "bleed-through" problem has occurred. Therapists need to help clients resolve distress and deal with any underlying problems that led to the initial bleed-through. Cuneiform texts dedicated to Inanna which incorporate domination rituals. In particular she points to ancient writings such as Inanna and Ebih in which the Goddess dominates Ebih , and Hymn to Inanna describing cross-dressing transformations and rituals "imbued with pain and ecstasy, bringing about initation [ sic?
During the ninth century BC, ritual flagellations were performed in Artemis Orthia , one of the most important religious areas of ancient Sparta , where the Cult of Orthia , a pre olympic religion, was practiced. Here ritual flagellation called diamastigosis took place, in which young adolescent men were whipped in a ceremony overseen by the priestess. One of the oldest graphical proofs of sadomasochistic activities is found in the Etruscan Tomb of the Whipping near Tarquinia , which dates to the fifth century BC.
Inside the tomb there is fresco which portrays two men who flagellate a woman with a cane and a hand during an erotic situation. In Pompeii, a whip-mistress figure with wings is depicted on the wall of the Villa of Mysteries , as part of an initiation of a young woman into the Mysteries. The whip-mistress role drove the sacred initiation of ceremonial death and rebirth. The Kama Sutra of India describes four different kinds of hitting during lovemaking, the allowed regions of the human body to target and different kinds of joyful "cries of pain" practiced by bottoms.
The collection of historic texts related to sensuous experiences explicitly emphasizes that impact play , biting and pinching during sexual activities should only be performed consensually since only some women consider such behavior to be joyful.
From this perspective the Kama Sutra can be considered as one of the first written resources dealing with sadomasochistic activities and safety rules. Further texts with sadomasochistic connotation appear worldwide during the following centuries on a regular basis. There are anecdotal reports of people willingly being bound or whipped, as a prelude to or substitute for sex, during the 14th century. The medieval phenomenon of courtly love in all of its slavish devotion and ambivalence has been suggested by some writers to be a precursor of BDSM.
Flagellation practiced within an erotic setting has been recorded from at least the s evidenced by a John Davies epigram,   and references to "flogging schools" in Thomas Shadwell 's The Virtuoso and Tim Tell-Troth's Knavery of Astrology John Cleland 's novel Fanny Hill , published in , incorporates a flagellation scene between the character's protagonist Fanny Hill and Mr Barville.
Composed and Delivered with Birch Discipline c. Other sources give a broader definition, citing BDSM-like behavior in earlier times and other cultures, such as the medieval flagellates and the physical ordeal rituals of some Native American societies.
BDSM ideas and imagery have existed on the fringes of Western culture throughout the twentieth century. Charles Guyette was the first American to produce and distribute fetish related material costumes, footwear, photography, props and accessories in the US.
His successor, Irving Klaw , produced commercial sexploitation film and photography with a BDSM theme most notably with Bettie Page and issued fetish comics known then as "chapter serials" by the now-iconic artists John Willie , Gene Bilbrew , and Eric Stanton.
Stanton's model Bettie Page became at the same time one of the first successful models in the area of fetish photography and one of the most famous pin-up girls of American mainstream culture. Italian author and designer Guido Crepax was deeply influenced by him, coining the style and development of European adult comics in the second half of the twentieth century.
The artists Helmut Newton and Robert Mapplethorpe are the most prominent examples of the increasing use of BDSM-related motives in modern photography and the public discussions still resulting from this. Leather has been a predominantly gay male term to refer to one fetish , but it can stand for many more.
Members of the gay male leather community may wear leathers such as Motorcycle leathers, or may be attracted to men wearing leather. Leather and BDSM are seen as two parts of one whole. Much of the BDSM culture can be traced back to the gay male leather culture , which formalized itself out of the group of men who were soldiers returning home after World War II — They formed leather clubs and bike clubs, some were fraternal services.
The establishment of Mr. Leather Contest and Mr. Drummer Contest were made around this time. This was the genesis of the gay male leather community.
Many of the members were attracted to extreme forms of sexuality, for which peak expression was in the pre-AIDS s. In , the publication of Coming to Power by lesbian-feminist group Samois led to a greater knowledge and acceptance of BDSM in the lesbian community. Today the Leather Movement is generally seen as a part of the BDSM-culture instead of as a development deriving from gay subculture, even if a huge part of the BDSM-subculture was gay in the past. In the s the so-called New Guard leather subculture evolved.
This new orientation started to integrate psychological aspects into their play. In the late-eighties, the Internet provided a way of finding people with specialized interests around the world as well as on a local level, and communicating with them anonymously.
When that group became too cluttered with spam , the focus moved to soc. With an increased focus on forms of social media, FetLife was formed, which advertises itself as "a social network for the BDSM and fetish community". It operates similarly to other social media sites, with the ability to make friends with other users, events, and pages of shared interests.
Once a very niche market , there are now very few sex toy companies that do not offer some sort of BDSM or fetish gear in their catalog. Kinky elements seem to have worked their way into " vanilla " markets. The former niche expanded to an important pillar of the business with adult accessories. Padded handcuffs, latex and leather garments, as well as more exotic items like soft whips for fondling and TENS for erotic electro stimulation can be found in catalogs aiming on classical vanilla target groups, indicating that former boundaries increasingly seem to shift.
During the last years the Internet also provides a central platform for networking among individuals who are interested in the subject. Besides countless private and commercial choices there is an increasing number of local networks and support groups emerging. These groups often offer comprehensive background and health related information for people who have been unwillingly outed as well as contact lists with information on psychologists , physicians and lawyers who are familiar with BDSM related topics.
Case law from the Austrian Supreme Court has consistently shown that bodily injury is only offensive to moral sensibilities, thus it is only punishable when a "serious injury" a damage to health or an employment disability lasting more than 24 days or the death of the "victim" results. A light injury is generally considered permissible when the "victim" has consented to it. In cases of threats to bodily well being the standard depends on the probability that an injury will actually occur.
If serious injury or even death would be a likely result of a threat being carried out, then even the threat itself is considered punishable.
In a judge in Canada ruled that videos seized by the police featuring BDSM activities were not obscene, and did not constitute violence, but a "normal and acceptable" sexual activity between two consenting adults. In , the Supreme Court of Canada ruled in R. The Court ruled that it is a criminal offence to perform a sexual act on an unconscious person—whether or not that person consented in advance.
False imprisonment can be charged if the victim—when applying an objective view—can be considered to be impaired in his or her rights of free movement. On 26 May the Criminal Panel No. Following cases in which sado-masochistic practices had been repeatedly used as pressure tactics against former partners in custody cases, the Appeals Court of Hamm ruled in February that sexual inclinations toward sado-masochism are no indication of a lack of capabilities for successful child-raising.
In Italian law BDSM is right on the border between crime and legality, and everything lies in the interpretation of the legal code by the judge. This concept is that anyone willingly causing "injury" to another person is to be punished.
In this context though "injury" is legally defined as "anything causing a condition of illness", and "illness" is ill-defined itself in two different legal ways. The first is "any anatomical or functional alteration of the organism" thus technically including little scratches and bruises too ; The second is "a significant worsening of a previous condition relevant to organic and relational processes, requiring any kind of therapy".
This could make it somewhat risky to play with someone as later the "victim" may call foul play citing even an insignificant mark as evidence against the partner. Also any injury requiring over 20 days of medical care must be denounced by the professional medic who discovers it, leading to automatic indictment of the person who caused it.
In September a Swedish court acquitted a year-old man of assault for engaging in consensual BDSM play with a year-old woman the age of consent in Sweden is This parallels the stance of the mental health professions in the Nordic countries which have removed sadomasochism from their respective lists of psychiatric illnesses. Certain practices however require granting consent for light injuries with only those over 18 permitted to give consent.
On 1 April Articles and of the Swiss Criminal Code were tightened to make ownership of "objects or demonstrations [ This law amounts to a general criminalization of sado-masochism since nearly every sado-masochist will have some kind of media which fulfills this criterion.
Critics also object to the wording of the law which puts sado-masochists in the same category as pedophiles and pederasts. In British law, consent is an absolute defence to common assault, but not necessarily to actual bodily harm, where courts may decide that consent is not valid, as occurred in the case of R v Brown. The Spanner Trust states that this is defined as activities which have caused injury "of a lasting nature" but that only a slight duration or injury might be considered "lasting" in law.
United Kingdom that no violation of Article 8 occurred because the amount of physical or psychological harm that the law allows between any two people, even consenting adults, is to be determined by the jurisdiction the individuals live in, as it is the State's responsibility to balance the concerns of public health and well-being with the amount of control a State should be allowed to exercise over its citizens.
In the Criminal Justice and Immigration Bill , the British Government cited the Spanner case as justification for criminalizing images of consensual acts, as part of its proposed criminalization of possession of " extreme pornography ". In this case, the act was deemed to be sexual. Jovanovic , 95 N. However, many individual states do criminalize specific BDSM actions within their state borders.
Some states specifically address the idea of "consent to BDSM acts" within their assault laws, such as the state of New Jersey, which defines "simple assault" to be "a disorderly persons offense unless committed in a fight or scuffle entered into by mutual consent , in which case it is a petty disorderly persons offense". Oregon Ballot Measure 9 was a ballot measure in the U.
It would have added the following text to the Oregon Constitution:. All governments in Oregon may not use their monies or properties to promote, encourage or facilitate homosexuality , pedophilia , sadism or masochism. All levels of government, including public education systems, must assist in setting a standard for Oregon's youth which recognizes that these behaviors are abnormal, wrong, unnatural and perverse and they are to be discouraged and avoided.
It was defeated in 3 November general election with , votes in favor, , votes against. The National Coalition for Sexual Freedom collects reports about punishment for sexual activities engaged in by consenting adults , and about its use in child custody cases. Today the BDSM culture exists in most western countries. This culture is often viewed as a subculture , mainly because BDSM is often still regarded as "unusual" by some of the public.
Many people hide their leaning from society since they are afraid of the incomprehension and of social exclusion. It is commonly known in the BDSM culture that there are practitioners living on all continents, but there is no documented evidence for many countries due to restrictive laws and censorship motivated by politics or religion except their presence in online BDSM communities and dating sites.
In contrast to frameworks seeking to explain sadomasochism through psychological, psychoanalytic, medical or forensic approaches, which seek to categorize behaviour and desires and find a root "cause", Romana Byrne suggests that such practices can be seen as examples of "aesthetic sexuality", in which a founding physiological or psychological impulse is irrelevant.
Rather, sadism and masochism may be practiced through choice and deliberation, driven by certain aesthetic goals tied to style, pleasure, and identity. These practices, in certain circumstances and contexts, can be compared with the creation of art. One of the most commonly used symbols of the BDSM community is a derivation of a triskelion shape within a circle. The BDSM Emblem Project claims copyright over one particular specified form of the triskelion symbol; other variants of the triskelion are free from such copyright claims.
The leather pride flag is a symbol for the leather subculture and also widely used within BDSM. They are three separate items, that are normally associated together. The BDSM rights flag, shown to the right, is intended to represent the belief that people whose sexuality or relationship preferences include BDSM practises deserve the same human rights as everyone else, and should not be discriminated against for pursuing BDSM with consenting adults.
The flag is inspired by the leather pride flag and BDSM emblem, but is specifically intended to represent the concept of BDSM rights and to be without the other symbols' restrictions against commercial use. It is designed to be recognisable by people familiar with either the leather pride flag or BDSM triskelion or triskele as "something to do with BDSM"; and to be distinctive whether reproduced in full colour, or in black and white or another pair of colours. BDSM and fetish items and styles have been spread widely in western societies' everyday life by different factors, such as avant-garde fashion, heavy metal , goth subculture , and science fiction TV series,  and are often not consciously connected with their BDSM roots by many people.
While it was mainly confined to the Punk and BDSM subcultures in the s, it has since spread into wider parts of western societies. Although it would be possible to establish certain elements related to BDSM in classical theater, not until the emergence of contemporary theatre would some plays have BDSM as the main theme.
Exemplifying this are two works: However, it is worth noting that the Marquis de Sade describes unconsented abuse in his works, such as in Justine. Venus in Furs describes a consented domme-sub relationship. A common part of many of the poems of Pablo Neruda is a reflection on feelings and sensations arising from the relations of EPE or erotic exchange of power.
The Fifty Shades trilogy is a series of very popular erotic romance novels by E. In the 21st century, a number of prestigious university press, such as of Duke University , Indiana University and University of Chicago , have published books on BDSM written by professors, thereby lending academic legitimacy to this once taboo topic.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about consensual adult sadomasochistic activity. For the medical condition involving non-consensual ideation or behaviour, see Sexual sadism disorder. Woman wearing a collar with attached chain. A typical slave collar with ring for possible attachment of a leash. Such or comparable models are sometimes used by bottoms as a symbol of ownership to their tops. The ring of O as a finger ring.
Sexual sadism disorder and Sexual masochism disorder. Feminist views on BDSM. This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. BDSM and the law. Sex and torture acts done at public BDSM events like Folsom Street Fair , USA, have been accused of being against the law, even when the events are promoted by the local administration and police, and all acts are done with consent.
Demonstration of Cock and ball torture on a man at the Folsom Street Fair. Use of breast torture and vibrator sex toy on a woman at the Fair. BDSM in culture and media. Sadism and masochism in fiction. List of BDSM authors. Oxford English Dictionary Online draft ed. Retrieved 29 November Archived from the original on 11 January Retrieved 27 January Retrieved 26 November Screw the Roses, Send Me the Thorns: The Romance and Sexual Sorcery of Sadomasochism. Archived from the original on 16 December Retrieved 10 December Retrieved 13 November The New Topping Book.
Anleitung zum erotischen Fesseln. Shibari You Can Use: The Journal of Sexual Medicine. Jay Wiseman's Erotic Bondage Handbook. The Days of Sodom, Pbl. Über den sado-masochistischen Komplex. Jahrbuch für psychoanalytische und psychopathologische Forschungen, Bd. Anatomy of a Scientific Discovery. Foye's Principles of Medicinal Chemistry 5th ed. Archives of Sexual Behavior. The Ultimate Guide to Kink: Der Inside-Führer zur dunklen Erotik: The Romance and Sexual Sorcery of Sadomasochism , pp.
Archived from the original on 10 October Retrieved 6 October Retrieved 5 October Archived from the original on 4 February Retrieved 29 January Archived from the original on 24 February Retrieved 5 July Archived from the original on 1 January The Motown roster grows: Gordy and his team put together a package of artists to tour the country as the Motortown Revue.
Berry Gordy has to spend less time songwriting and producing, more time running the business. Motown moves its headquarters to larger premises in downtown Detroit, while keeping the studio facilities on West Grand Boulevard. The company grows into Motown Industries, with music, film, television and other interests. And another Gordy generation makes its mark: In , the city of Detroit honors its native son by giving West Grand Boulevard, the street which now houses the Motown Museum, a secondary name: Story Berry Gordy Jr.
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